Michael Brett (1969)
Ifriqiya as a Market for Saharan Trade from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century A.D.
The Journal of African History, 10:347-364.
»Attempts to explain a collapse of the Ifriqiyan economy after 1050 by supposing an interruption of gold supplies from the Sudan appear to fail. The concept of collapse may itself be challenged, and the phenomena reinterpreted as a manifestation of provincial prosperity following the decline of the capital Qayrawan. Nomadic activity may then be regarded as symptomatic rather than causative, and Saharan trade as governed by the laws of supply and demand. This trade would form an elastic network, consisting of a traffic in staples which sustained certain luxury trades. In the tenth century this network appears to have been in the hands of Ibadis, and centred in the Djerid. This seems to indicate the primacy of Ifriqiyan demand at this period, partly attributable to a special demand for gold. Such commercial activity would have promoted the further growth of the Ifriqiyan economy. In the eleventh century, Ifriqiyan primacy would have disappeared with the Fatimid emigration to Egypt, and the rise of Morocco. At the same time, provincial development would have involved the collapse of Qayrawan and its market. By the twelfth century, the northern African market for Saharan trade would have split up, entailing a more complicated pattern of supply. Over the period, the volume of trade may have risen.«
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