Alfonso Franco Silva (2000)
Los negros libertos en las sociedades andaluzas entre los siglos XV al XVI
In: De l’esclavitud a la llibertat. Esclaus i lliberts a l’edat mitjana. Actes del Col•loqui Internacional celebrat a Barcelona, del 27 al 29 de maig de 1999, ed. by Maria Teresa Ferrer i Mallol and Josefina Mutgé i Vives, pp. 573-592, Consell Superior d’Investigacions Científiques, Institució Milà i Fontanals, Departament d’Estudis Medievals, Barcelona. Anuario de Estudios Medievales, Anejo 38.
The article is devoted to the lives of black former slaves in Andalusia after their manumission, concentrating on the cities of Cordoba and Seville in the first three decades of the sixteenth century. The most frequent occasions for attaining free status were manumission by the testament of the slaveholder, and grant of a carta de ahorramiento, by which the slave was enabled to aquire his own redemption money, by either begging or labour. In this connection a clear distinction can be drawn between black African slaves and Moorish slaves. Slaves from Andalusia or the North African coast were nearer to their families and stood a greater chance of raising the required sums.
The second part deals with the lives of former slaves, on which there is very little documentation. Some examples of individual careers can, however, be found. Some former slaves returned to their former homes, others got involved in crimes, some made their living as independent craftsmen while others remained as free servants with their former patrons.